This Amendment was passed right after the Civil War and does 4 things.
The citizenship clause says that anyone born in the U.S. is a citizen. This was a big deal when it passed, since it meant that black people born in the U.S. were citizens. The Amendment also says that once you become a citizen, the government can’t take your citizenship away.
The due process clause guarantees that the government can’t take away your First Amendment rights without “due process” (or a trial by a jury of citizens).
The equal protection clause says that states are supposed to protect all their citizens equally. It seems to have been written to protect blacks from discrimination after the Civil War. Unfortunately, it was written vaguely and didn’t accomplish this.
The privileges or immunities clause confirms that you get certain rights no matter what state you’re in. For example, you’re allowed to buy land in another state, and your free to enter and leave other states. This is actually a really complicated one, but it helps to remember that the Fourteenth Amendment was passed in 1868, right after the Civil War, when former Confederate states were passing laws that restricted the rights of ex-slaves.
Ratified in 1968.
Read the actual text of the 14th Amendment.